Also, the problem is aggravated by the agricultural excess of developed countries.
Coping with the globalization will not be possible by increasing national protectionism. Reforming the IMF requires modernizing and adoption of financial assistance and must be correlated with a new vision of the conditions imposed on debtor countries, because a misguided policy will deepen the national economic problems. Differences between U. In the current context, the contemporary economy is approached as a block.
States cannot exist in isolation, cannot live outside the network of relationships which are established at all levels. Therefore the world economy must be viewed as a system, as a whole composed of smaller or larger parts, more or less developed. Economic globalization that characterizes today's economy, results mainly from transnational corporations and the large enthusiasm of resurgence regionalism obvious in Europe and in other parts of the world. Globalization is the second largest component of the contemporary world economy, after establishing the new economic order. One of the most popular definition is: "the new economy is a broad concept that describes an economy where both the final product and its intermediate phases consists in information and where digital information, offers a worldwide access to all information available at one time.
These new technologies are designed to potentiate the efficiency of conventional and traditional business practices and to facilitate the emergence of new processes and products. The main characteristics of the new economy ire about cooperation and competition, the need for focusing on the customer needs, but also increasing consumption of human intelligence and creativity that results in a higher added value, new jobs, the reduction of resource consumption, growth of labor productivity.
Analyzing the new world order we cannot overlook the occult side of this reality that brings in the spotlight the military and economic actions of the main power centers the "Group Bildelberg", "Illuminati", "Masonry" that use the instruments of the global financial institutions, imposing their own rules in order to dominate humanity.
In other news, new world order is the intersection of three contemporary phenomenons: globalization, information revolution and the economic war. Richard D.
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It concentrates the power over the market in the hands of those who direct a small number of huge corporations:. Through globalization, the work conditions standards decrease, resulting in the workers being turned into a sort of slaves;. Globalization involves the prosperity of the multinational companies at the expense of the consumers and of the small companies. Preservation of the existing capitalist system in the U. A fundamental problem of the contemporary society is the report national - international in the economic field. Globalization is seen as a moment stage in the process of globalization in which the main actor is the multinational company, so as an expansion in the international market of production factors, greater mobility of the capital, a considerable increase in international investment and financial flows see fig.
Globalization is profitable for multinational corporations who integrate in their own networks international production systems. Ensuring the economic development moves to a new level "the global market economy" while the insurance of the well-being of nations remains the same within the national area. Globalization of world economy seems to carry on without rules in the last 20 years.see url
Ecology and Society: A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis
The global unilateralism affirmed in the U. It is necessary that developing countries emerge in order to implement measures to mitigate the negative effects of a harsh globalization without rules that can generate planetary crisis, social anarchy see fig. Large multinational corporations see the State as a barrier to globalization as an anachronic economic actor and not as a regulatory authority and organisms of social cohesion.
State must remain the main actor on the world stage, as globalization is not only an alibi for the various forms of imperialism. The State must remain the place where democracy is exercised, the pillar of social cohesion and solidarity. Also, globalization is not compatible with sustainable development. Globalization deepens the gap between the rich and the poor see fig. Globalization is a complex phenomenon, raising a large number of problems as soon as we try to find and give it a unanimously accepted definition.
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Johannes Varwick ;. Anthony Giddens ;. In our opinion, the globalization can be defined as a process of increasing interdependence of nation states by the growth of transnational ties in various spheres of economical, political, social and cultural life. So, the basic criterion of defining globalization is the increasing interdependence in the various sectors of the socio-political and economical life.
The concept of interdependence takes a variety of meanings depending on the motivations of those who employ it. Robert Gilpin defines this tem as "a mutual dependence, though not equal", not accepting many of the so-called political and economical consequences.
Social Change and Modernization in African Societies South of the Sahara
So, the benefits of interdependence are sometimes expressed by zero-sum or nonzero sum. When we talk about the evolution of globalization we think about the presentation of the most significant moments in the history of this phenomenon. What could the evolution of globalization refer to? In general economic terms, we could say that its purpose is the analysis of the history of the interstate commerce growth, based on stable institutions authorizing certain organisms to exchange goods more easily.
The first globalization era is often considered to be the period when gold defined the economic standard. Relying on the post British expansion and the goods exchange for cash, this first stage developed along with the industrialization. David Ricardo and J. Say are among those who, through their works, provided the theoretical framework needed for the expansion of this incipient period of globalization. In their works on comparative advantage and the general law of the markets, the two authors uphold the idea that countries will trade efficiently and that the imbalances between demand and offer on the market will only be transitory and will adjust themselves.
About years ago, David Ricardo considered that the comparative advantage is an application of the principle of specialization and exchange between firms, regions, nations. In his opinion each individual, firm, region or nation will have to win if they specialize in the production of those goods and services costing little and if they exchange them for products costing more. Stage 4 - — when the great state powers crystallize and the worldwide organizations and institutions develop. Stage 5 started at the end of the 20 th century, being characterized by the intensification of regionalization and integration, but also by the strong development of multinational corporations.
After the Second World War, a second globalization age has been outlined.
Evolution and International Organization
During the present period, globalization is developing under the influence of three categories of factors:. The increase of the international exchange area through the integration of new states from South America, Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia. The globalization of the organizations able to integrate their activities, especially their research-development, supply and trading, on a world scale. Globalization is a complex process, which, as one can see from what has been previously outlined, has manifested its symptoms beginning a very long time ago Pattern, Both the Cold War and globalization are systems characterized by a unifying feature, actually diametrically opposite for each of them, and by a symbol: the wall in the case of the Cold War and the web for globalization.
In the case of the Cold War, the unifying feature was the division in time, while for globalization this feature is unification. In contradiction with the Cold War, globalization has its own dominant culture, concretized in the ample extension of Americanization. Some economists divide the history of mondialisation into three stages:. The transnationalization of the direct investment flows and the implantation of the large organizations abroad;.
The implementation of the world production and information networks, leading to a better combination and rationalization of the corporate activity in the worldwide economic area. So, by the beginning of the 20 th century, globalization became chronic, engulfing more and more states of the contemporary world. In the year , the classification of the most globalized economies, established according to the A. Kearey index, situates the following states on the first ten places see Table 1. Singapore, the holder of the First Prize in , is on the third place, while Ireland moved from the third position to the second, during just one year.
The place of Spain is unchanged, by comparison to the previous year, while Romania occupies the 30 th position, being defeated by Bulgaria but in front of Italy, which holds the 31 st rank, and in front of Greece, which is situated on the 35 th position. This index measures and tracks down the performance of the 60 largest world economies in relation to diverse indexes from the following categories: openness to the exterior, movement of capital, technology and idea exchange, labor force mobility and cultural integration.
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In the modern globalization era, beside the classification of the most globalized countries, there is also a hierarchy of the most globalized cities. In order to establish the positions in this top, five criteria are analyzed for each city in turn, namely: economical activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience and juridical cooperation. On the level of the year , the first positions were occupied, in order, by: New York, London and Tokyo. We can notice that four out of the ten most globalized cities are situated in Asia.
The outline of the contemporary globalization is largely shaped by the economical-financial crisis that has affected the entire world, with few exceptions. In this situation, globalization no longer appears as a phenomenon either so implacable or so irreversible or so American. We need to reestablish the basic balance between our markets, morals and regulations. I do not want to kill the wild spirit required to move capitalism forward, but I do not want to be torn apart by it either.
Sure, there are some globalization aspects that are irreversible, such as the transnationality of technologies or communications see fig. Yet, there are also reversible aspects, of an economic and cultural nature. China is more stable than the USA, and the jobs, the production and the revenues are here now.
As shown in the last 20 years, globalization has brought to the countries of the world more disadvantages than advantages. For example:. The main connections of the global economy with the international monetary-financial system result from the operational credit-financing operations, discount operations and liquidities regulation operations.
The IMF and the WB group are notorious international financial-monetary authorities, built on the basis of global-scale concession, called to govern the dynamics and balance of the international financial monetary system. The institution of the International Monetary Fund was created in through the provisions of the Bretton Woods agreement, as a specialized financial-monetary organism of the United Nations System, responsible at first for the good functioning of the Gold Exchange Standard.
The promotion of an international monetary cooperation and the goal of assuring a harmonious evolution in the international trade;. The promotion of a stable exchange rate system, while respecting the engagements assumed by its members;. Permanent assistance concerning the establishment and the coherent functioning of the multilateral payment system established among its members;.
Maintaining the climate of trust in the policies of the institution, by permanently availing temporary resources to the members in order to balance the current balances of payments;. The initial goal of BIRD was to support the post-war reconstruction and later on to promote the development of its member states. The World Bank is oriented towards economic assistance programs, development programs, and structural adjustment programs meant to fight poverty.
In relation to the World Bank, the IMF represents the primordial institution as specialization and responsibility sphere in connection to the international financial monetary system — by its configuration and the arbitration of its functional architecture. Gradually, as both of these institutions got involved increasingly and steadily in finding solutions to reduce the debts of the developing countries, their activities partially overlapped.
So, in time, the World Bank shifted its attention from financing projects to the program for economic reform; the IMF gave more attention to the structural reform along with its traditional activity concerning the adjustment of the balance of payments. So, the main directions of action of the two institutions refer to the mechanisms of macroeconomic stabilization and to their direct involvement in international economic problems. The confusions related to the delimitation of responsibilities between IMF and the World Bank until are notorious.
The insufficient or even defective involvement of these two international organisms into the global problems has drawn criticism and reform recommendations. The IMF is called to support - from the position of analyst and consultant - the macroeconomic condition in relation to the quality of the monetary regime and the structure of the balance of national payments from the perspective of the monetary and budgetary policy of its member states.
The IMF is criticized for its market fundamentalism and the absolutization of its monetary network, the administrative recipe for all the countries with different problems that have appealed to the financial aid instruments.